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Faisalabad, (Urdu فیصل آباد}) formerly known as Lyallpur, is the third largest metropolis in Pakistan, the second largest in the province of Punjab after Lahore, and a major industrial center in the heart of Pakistan. Nicknamed the Manchester of Asia, Faisalabad remains an important industrial city west of Lahore. The city-district of Faisalabad is bound on the north by the districts of Hafizabad and Chiniot, on the east by Nankana Sahib, on the south by Sahiwal, and Toba Tek Singh and on the west by Jhang. The city is at a road and railway junction, which has played an influential role in the development of Faisalabad's trade and economy. The surrounding countryside, irrigated by the Lower Chenab River, has seen expanded production of cotton, wheat, sugarcane, vegetables, and fruits, which form 55% of Pakistan's exports. The city is a major industrial centre with major railway repair yards, engineering works, and mills that process sugar, flour, and oil seed. Produce includes superphosphates, cotton and silk textiles, hosiery, dyes, industrial chemicals, beverages, apparels, pulp and paper, printing, agricultural equipment, and ghee (clarified butter). Faisalabad is the site of the prestigious University of Agriculture, founded in 1909. Faisalabad remained a semi-desert area where tribes traveled in gypsy manner. Because of impure ground water and its distance of 30 kilometres (19 mi) from any river (Chenab River in this case), it was never used as permanent residence by roaming tribes. Faisalabad was originally known as Chenab Colony, then Sandalbar and then Lyallpur. It was once part of ancient district of Jhang and Sandalbar, a 5,000 square kilometres (1,900 sq mi) area consisting mainly of thick forests and inhabited by wild tribes. The tract from Shahdara to Shorkot, Sangla Hill to Toba Tek Singh, was traditionally called Sandalbar. In 1870s the colonial era Punjab government decided to increase the cultivated land by making barrages and canals to meet the demand at European markets. This led to the canal based irrigation of the areas now comprising the district of Faisalabad. In 1880, a colonial officer, Captain Poham Young, with the support of Sir James Broadwood Lyall, proposed a new town. The design was based on the Union Jack, with eight roads radiating from a large clock tower in the centre. The eight roads developed into eight separate bazaars. The construction of artificial canals allowed the surrounding areas to be irrigated. The town grew rapidly as people were invited with promises of land. A large number of settlers came from different areas of Punjab especially from Ludhiana, Jalandhar and Ambala on the promise of large agricultural lands. With the extensively planned distribution of land the canal irrigated areas of Sandal Bar soon became populated. This led to a rapid transformation of the nomadic environment of the Bar into a more agriculture based one. In 1892 the government of India decided to join Faisalabad (then Lyallpur) with a rail link to major rail network to transport agricultural surplus to the ports to be shipped to European markets. In 1895 the rail link between Wazirabad and Lyallpur was completed. In 1896, Lyallpur was given the status of a tehsil of the Jhang District, and its administration was carried on in tents on the old Theh (Mound) of Pucca Mari near Tariqabad. The majestic Clock Tower was constructed out of the funds raised by the Sikh landowners, who collected it at a rate of Rs. 18 per square of land. The fund thus raised was handed over to the Town Committee, which undertook to complete the project. Pakistan Railways locomotive parked at Lyallpur Railway Station c. 1949 By 1902 the population of the town exceeded 4,000, including the new sialkoti jutts, particularly Bajwas, Kalloos, Cheemas & Chattas came to establish the agriculture land of Chenaab (called Chena bar). Houses and shops had been constructed to cater to the ordinary needs of the population. In 1903 it was decided to establish an agricultural college. In 1904 the new district of Lyallpur was constituted, composed of the tehsils of Lyallpur, Samundri and Toba Tek Singh, with a subtehsil at Jaranwala which later became a full tehsil. By 1906, the district headquarters began to function in Lyallpur and all the bazaars and settlements within the bounds of a ring road were nearing completion. The city began to spread outside the circular road. The Town Committee was upgraded to a Municipal Committee in 1909 and the Deputy Commissioner was appointed as its first chairman. In 1916, the grain market saw its shops surging with customers. In the same year the civil hospital was expanded. With the advent of World War II, there was an increase in political awareness across the city. Revolutionary meetings were held, fiery speeches made, and slogans written on walls. The First Colonisation officer Raja Aurangzeb Khan made sure that no individual in this district owned more than 25 squares (625 acres (2.53 km2)) of land. The merit or method of allotting the land was to check each individual's hand who was applying for some land, and if the hands showed that individual had worked hard in the past, only then was land given to him, which has led to a district where there aren't any big land owners, as the land has been equally distributed amongst hard working men and it is their hard work that has led to Faisalabad becoming the third richest district in Pakistan. The main roads in and out of the city were kept 1-acre (4,000 m2) wide; since creation of Pakistan a lot of roads have been taken over by land mafia. Some industrial areas were kept on the East of the main canal which is present-day People's Colony and Madina town. The urban areas were kept to the west of the canal, as sweet ground water flowed from the canal to the river Chenab, the consequence of changing former industrial area into urban areas has been a lack of proper drinkable water for those living in peoples colony and Madina town. Another industrial area was developed at the west end of town, now around the road towards the central Punjab town of Sargodha. These earlier development of industrial areas led to industrialization of the city of Faisalabad right from its inception. Initial industrial setup were related to cotton and basic textiles, still the most dominant industry of the city with more value added products. Besides textiles food processing, grain crushing and small chemical industry was established in the pre-second World War era. The prestigious Chenab Club, a social club built during the reign of the British Empire In 1943, Mohammad Ali Jinnah came to Lyallpur and addressed a gathering of over 2 million in Dhobi Ghat Grounds. After independence, the city of Lyallpur enjoyed considerable development, and became a major commercial and industrial center. The population grew quickly past one million. There was an expansion of the provision of health and education in the city. In 1977, the name of the city was changed to "Faisalabad" (City of Faisal), in honour of the late King Faisal of Saudi Arabia, who was held in high regard in Pakistan. In 1985, the district was upgraded to a division with the new districts of Faisalabad, Jhang and Toba Tek Singh. Geography and climate Main article: Climate of Faisalabad Faisalabad Climate chart (explanation) J F M A M J J A S O N D 12 194 20 227 26 2712 17 3418 16 3823 28 4127 115 3727 90 3627 29 3624 3.8 3317 3 2710 8.6 215 Average max. and min. temperatures in °C Precipitation totals in mm Source: World Meteorological Organization [show]Imperial conversion Faisalabad stands in the rolling flat plains of northeast Punjab, between longitude 73°74 East, latitude 30°31.5 North, with an elevation of 184 metres (604 ft) above sea level. The city proper covers an area of approximately 1,230 square kilometres (470 sq mi), while the district covers more than 16,000 square kilometres (6,200 sq mi). There are no natural boundaries between Faisalabad and adjoining districts. The Chenab River flows about 30 km (19 mi) to the north-west while the River Ravi meanders about 40 km (25 mi) south-east of the city. The lower Chenab canal is the main source of irrigation water, which meets the requirements of 80% of cultivated land. The soil of Faisalabad comprises alluvial deposits mixed with loess having calcareous characteristics, making it very fertile. Due to its high evapotranspiration, Faisalabad features an arid climate. The climate of the district can see extremes, with a summer maximum temperature 50 °C (122 °F) and a winter temperature of −2 °C (28 °F). The mean maximum and minimum temperature in summer are 39 °C (102 °F) and 27 °C (81 °F) respectively. In winter it peaks at around 17 °C (63 °F) and 6 °C (43 °F) respectively. The summer season starts from April and continues until October. May, June and July are the hottest months. The winter season starts from November and continues until March. December, January and February are the coldest months. The average yearly rainfall lies only at about 300 mm (12 in) and is highly seasonal with approximately half of the yearly rainfall in the two months July and August. Temperatures (1948–2006) Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Annual Highest maximum (°C) 19.4 22.4 27.4 34.2 39.7 41.0 37.7 36.5 36.6 33.9 28.2 22.1 31.6 Lowest minimum (°C) 4.8 7.6 12.6 18.3 24.1 27.6 27.9 27.2 24.5 17.7 10.4 6.1 17.4 Destinations from Faisalabad Chenab Chiniot Sheikhupura Jhang Lahore Faisalabad Gojra Sahiwal Okara Economy Main article: Economy of Faisalabad Agricultural exports form an important part of Faisalabad's economy A PricewaterhouseCoopers study released in 2009, surveying the 2008 GDP of the top cities in the world, calculated Faisala